Categorie archief: Europese kernwaarden

Informatiebubbel geen verkiezingsissue: een gemiste kans

Op 15 maart ga ik – en ik hoop met mij miljoenen andere Nederlanders – naar het stembureau voor de Tweede Kamerverkiezingen. Als toezichthouder op de media kijk ik natuurlijk met speciale belangstelling naar wat de verschillende politieke partijen in hun verkiezingsprogramma zeggen over de onafhankelijkheid, pluriformiteit en toegankelijkheid van het media-aanbod.

Dat zouden alle kiezers trouwens moeten doen. Media zijn immers de pijlers onder onze democratische rechtstaat. Zij bieden ons informatie en helpen bij onze meningsvorming. Daarmee dragen ze in sterke mate bij aan de kwaliteit van onze democratie. Wat de verschillende partijen in hun verkiezingsprogramma over media zeggen, leest u in dit overzicht. Lees verder

EU citizenship: a slipping anchor to hold on to rights? Brexit and the consequences for EU citizens with British nationality

This summer many European citizens woke up in shock. Whilst reading the newspaper, listening to the radio, scrolling on Facebook, having breakfast, we learnt that a small majority of the voters in the Brexit referendum voted to leave the European Union. Not only does the (potential) Brexit have consequences for the internal market and the economic and social rights of EU citizens, but it also threatens their status as such. This is shocking for EU citizens with the nationality of another Member State residing in the United Kingdom, because their status will be redefined. For instance, in the future they will no longer be able to rely on equal treatment based on EU citizenship in the United Kingdom. Possibly even more shocked were British nationals, who might now actually lose their status as EU citizens, either living in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in the European Union. This will significantly impact their possibilities to work, study, and take up residence in another EU Member State. Lees verder

Brexit and ‘mexit’? The legal dimension of the EU Single Market and Brexit

brexit-doorA few weeks ago the High Court ruled in favour of the role of the UK Parliament in the process of triggering Article 50 TEU. Some newspapers reacted with fury, like the Daily Mail branding the judges as the ‘Enemies of the People’. These reactions constitute an unprecedented attack on the independence of the judiciary, which according to MPs and other commentators undermines the rule of law. These are the latest developments in a series of tumultuous events surrounding the Brexit decision, which have important ramifications for the EU and for the UK. Lees verder

Mag de Amerikaanse justitie onze emailgegevens inkijken?

Europese gebruikers van Gmail, Hotmail en MSN zijn voorlopig veilig voor de lange arm van de Amerikaanse wet. Een Amerikaanse rechtbank besliste vorige week (14 juli 2016) dat de Amerikaanse justitie Microsoft niet kan dwingen emailgegevens over te leggen die in een Iers datacentrum waren opgeslagen. De beslissing zou echter zomaar een Pyrrusoverwinning kunnen zijn voor internationaal opererende Internetproviders en gebruikers bezorgd om hun privacy. Niet alleen kan de Amerikaanse justitie nog in beroep gaan bij het Amerikaanse Hooggerechtshof, ook kan het Amerikaanse Congres steeds een andersluidende wet aannemen. De beleidsvraag hierbij is hoe we een efficiënte bestrijding van de transnationale misdaad kunnen verzoenen met adequate gegevensbescherming en respect voor de soevereiniteit van andere landen. Lees verder

Gender bias in de academische wereld: vier Spinoza prijzen

Anna Maria Schuurman (eerste vrouwelijke student UU)

Anna Maria Schuurman (eerste vrouwelijke student UU)

In december 2015 organiseerde Linda Senden met Mirella Visser van het Centrum voor Inclusive Leadership een seminar over de gelijke behandeling van man en vrouw als een van de kernwaarden van de Europese Unie (artikel 2 en 3 lid 3 van het Verdrag van de Europese Unie), het beginsel van gelijkheid van mannen en vrouwen (artikel 23 van het Handvest), en  de vrijheid van beroep en het recht om te werken (artikel 15 Handvest).  Om dit te realiseren streeft de EU er op grond van artikel 8 van het Verdrag betreffende de werking van de Europese Unie  er bij elk optreden naar de ongelijkheden tussen mannen en vrouwen op te heffen en de gelijkheid van mannen en vrouwen te bevorderen.  In de praktijk is het echter ook op Europees niveau nog zoeken naar mogelijkheden om regelgeving zo in te richten dat gender diversiteit wordt gestimuleerd.  Een voorstel daartoe voor een richtlijn “inzake de verbetering van de man-vrouwverhouding bij niet-uitvoerende bestuurders van beursgenoteerde ondernemingen 2012”  is een voorbeeld van de voetangels en klemmen die daarbij een rol spelen.  Tijdens het seminar werd vooral gekeken naar hoe naast de overheid ook de industrie een belangrijke rol en verantwoordelijkheid hierin heeft. Een van de conclusies van de organisatoren van het seminar was, dat het eigenlijk onvermijdelijk is om harde quota in te voeren, ook al betekent dit een vergaande ingreep in de vrijheid van ondernemerschap (artikel 16 Handvest). Lees verder

Blow that whistle!

whistleIn April 2014, the Albanian Ministry of Justice and the Minister of State on Local Issues granted the Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law & Criminology the task of designing a Whistleblower Protection Law for Albania. This project was supported by the Embassy of the Netherlands in Albania and funded by the Dutch Rule of Law Programme. The team responsible for drafting the Law and the explanatory memorandum consisted of researchers from the Research Programmes UCALL and RENFORCE: François Kristen (UCALL), Eelke Sikkema (UCALL), John Vervaele (RENFORCE), Dina Siegel-Rozenblit (RENFORCE) and myself (RENFORCE). The draft Law and the explanatory memorandum were sent to Tirana in March 2015, and in the beginning of June this year, the Netherlands Embassy announced that the Albanian Parliament had approved the Whistleblower Law. The Law will enter into force once it is promulgated by the President of the Republic and published in the Official Gazette. However, it is important to note that until its publication in the Official Gazette we do not know to what extent the approved Law differs from the draft Law we submitted. Lees verder

Balancing security and freedom in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

balansThe 2016 Annual European Criminal Law Academic Network (ECLAN) Conference was entitled “The Needed Balances of EU Criminal Law: Past, Present and Future”. One of the discussed topics was how to establish the right balance between measures that provide security and those that protect freedom. The point was strongly made that EU law to date has focused too much on establishing an Area of Security by adopting mutual recognition instruments and minimum harmonization measures which contribute to the protection of individuals against cross-border criminality. An example is the widening definition of offences linked to terrorist activities. After the 9/11 attacks, Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA was adopted whose provisions include the definition of terrorist offences and offences linked to terrorist activities. In 2008, Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA broadened the scope of offences linked to terrorist activities by criminalizing recruitment and training for terrorism. In 2015, as a response to the continuing and growing threat of terrorism, the Commission introduced a far-reaching proposal for a Directive on combating terrorism. Title III of this Directive on offences related to terrorist activities includes ‘travelling abroad for terrorism’, which is a new offence. Lees verder

Locked out: Exclusion, discrimination and repression in the State of ‘Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité’

picture

French disadvantaged neighborhoods as symbolic prisons. Photo: Léa Massé

In the wake of the Paris attacks that struck France in November 2015, the French government adopted a temporary state of emergency, announcing that the country was ‘at war’ with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The emergency Law – extended until May 2016 – has included a series of measures strengthening law-enforcement scope of actions, including preventive stop-and-frisk, housing arrest without prior judicial approval, warrantless searches, police raids, and citizenship withdrawal for individuals suspected of being involved in terrorist activities. Over a period of six months, more than 3200 raids have been conducted by law-enforcement officials and 400 people have been placed under house arrests. While the state of emergency seems to bear fruits, a recent report published by Human Rights Watch in February 2016 denounces abusive police practices and serious human right violations targeting mostly disadvantaged urban neighborhood residents. Lees verder

The Netherlands move ahead with Competition and Sustainability

greenBy the end of January 2016 the public consultation by the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs on the new Guidelines Competition and Sustainability will have closed. The Minister will then take into account the remarks made, for example those by the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands, and finalize the Guidelines calling upon the ACM – the Dutch Competition Authority  – to take into account sustainability-benefits when assessing an otherwise anti-competitive agreement. This is quite revolutionary.

Lees verder

Liberté, Liberté chérie… where things can go wrong. The French reaction to the terrorists attack in Paris

paris_attacks

Foto door: Fugitron (CC BY-SA)

Following the Paris attacks of November 2015, president Hollande declared a state of emergency in France for twelve days. It was extended for three months until the 26th of February 2016 by the law no 2015-1501 of 20 November 2015 which, with no surprise, was adopted almost unanimously (only 12 negative votes and one abstention). According to the law no 55-385 of 3 April 1955 the state of emergency can be declared where there is an imminent danger to the public order, or in relation to events which amount, by their nature and severity, to a public disaster. It is clear that this exceptional regime was declared in order to specifically address the terrorist attacks by religious fundamentalists. As in many other Union member states, France witnesses a growing concern for internal security. However, this concern may stifle the equally important concern for justice and freedom that characterizes any state based on the rule of law. It further poses the question of the actual efficiency of legislation on security in the fight against terrorists. Lees verder